How to become a good English teacher to non-native speakers of English

 

                                                                                                            Joseph Jin Jung

 

There are many ways to teach English, but it is cumbersome to find a perfect way to teach.  Maybe it is impossible to find the perfect and easy way to teach.  However, as we would consider(?) ourselves as decent educators, we just have to find effective ways to teach English well.  It will be ludicrous to say that native speakers of English are the best English teachers.  Just because one can speak English well does not mean that he/she is an excellent English teacher.     

 

To become a good English teacher, one must educate oneself to become one. In fact, a person has to have a desire to become a good teacher.  Of course you can not deny that there are some gifted people who may not need any education or enthusiasm to become a good teacher.  More power to those God gifted people.  Well, I am sorry that I am not one of those people.  I'll be afraid to use the word "gifted people".  But, I can say with my heart that I have a sincere desire of wanting to become a good English teacher and I trained myself to become a good English teacher.

 

Students can see if you are a good teacher.  They will have a respect for you.

It took me over five years to grasp what is needed to become a good English teacher.  What I have learned may not be the best way to teach and may not bring a huge interest to many, but it sure worked for me and many students whom I had a pleasure of teaching.

 

Now, I'd like to share my teaching methods and strategies with you.  The methods and strategies that I'm about to introduce maybe very basic and simple.  It may bore you to death, but please bear with me.

 

Suppose if I were to teach English to a 20 year old native Korean, what advise should I give him?  Let's first examine a 20 year old native English Speaker and look into the fact of how he can speak English well.  It is obvious that the native English speaker had been exposed to, spoken to and listened English for 20 years.  It does not take a miracle for any person to speak English well if he/she has spoken to and in English for 20 years.  Can you imagine how many times he said 'Good morning' or 'how are you' in 20 years.  Probably many, many, many times.  So, if a 20 year old non-native speaker of English wants to speak English well, all he has to do is do the same thing that the native speaker of English did for 20 years.  Did it bore you?

 

The moral of the story is that in order to learn another language

       

 

 

Learning Style

 

Types of learners (learning styles)

  There are basically three types of learners.

    1. Visual

    2. Auditory

    3. Kinesthetic, tactile

 

There are other facilitators that assist learning such as:

 

   1. Activity

   2. Investigation

   3. Experimentation and discovery

   4. Imagination

   5. Asking questions and searching for answers

   6. Using all of senses when possible

   7. Repetition and drill

   8. Sorting and combining objects

   9. Learning step-by-step and in sequence

  10. Modeling

 

To help students to learn, you need to be aware of these classroom learning facilitators.

 

   1. Class structure - Learning is best in a structured environment.

      It lessens student anxiety.

 

   2. Sequence - Learning takes place if in sequence.  You cannot learn to write a paragraph until you've learned how to write a sentence. Ask yourself if you've taught all the parts to the new learning.

 

   3. Pacing - Ask yourself three questions: a) How long (time) should be spent on the new or old learning. b) How often should they practice the new learning.  Students will forget if practice sessions are too far apart.  If they studied it in October, does this mean they will remember it in May?  c) How much of the new learning do they study at a time. If they have 20 spelling words to learn, you might consider having them study five at a time.

 

    4. Closure - In humans there is a powerful drive towards closure.  You shouldn't leave too many things open.  Incomplete work and work never getting done lessens self-esteem.  You need a beginning and an end.

 

    5. Opportunity to gain competence - Students should learn and practice a new learning until they are competent with the new learning.

 

    6. Concrete - abstract - Many learnings need to be made concrete for better understanding.  The term furniture is abstract.  To make concrete you must father chairs, tables, etc.

  

    7. Self-concept - Self-concept is very important to learning.  Students need to feel         self-worth.  Build success into your program.  What we are successful at we like to do.  What we are not successful at we don't like to do.  If we think we can't do it, we usually don't.  Assist students in feeling good about themselves.

  

    8. Guidance - Guide a student to correct answers.  The student should hold the pencil and be doing the work, not the instructor.  If you always tell the student how to spell dog, he doesn't need to learn it for himself.  Provide ways of assisting them to find the answers.

 

    9. Practice - Practice small parts.  Make them meaningful and add more only after those have been learned.  Make practice periods short enough to meet student's attention span requirements.  Do a great deal of practice at the beginning.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.   

   10. Motivation - Whenever a student finds his work too difficult or too easy or boring, he becomes passive.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.

 

   11. Knowledge of results - Students are move sensitive to doing their work if they

       get immediate feedback of test and work results.  The more immediate the feedback, the easier it is for the students to improve his/her performance or correct errors.

 

   12. Length of study - It is better for students to study with sessions spaced with rest periods.

  

   13. Retention - Maintaining what has been learned.

        Retention factors:

         a. Meaning - Give learning as much meaning as possible.

         b. Original learning - Make sure the learning has taken place.

             Test for knowledge.

         c. Make learning pleasant, stimulating, and exciting.

             We remember pleasant things.

 

What is Motivation?

 

Motivation is helping students find the desire or need to learn a task.  It engages his interest, it does not just insist that the student try harder.

 

Suggestions to help you motivate students:

 

1. Tone of voice - The intonation of your voice can help.  Small amounts of pleasant or unpleasant tone will increase motivation. Too much tone, or toneless monotone help decrease motivation.

 

2. Tension - Tension in small doses will help motivate a student.  Too much tension may cause the student to think only of the tension and how to deal with it.  Be careful using tension and treat each student individually.

 

3. Interest - The more interest that is caused the more likely the student will learn.  Let students invent and create.  Use their interests.

 

4. Success - If a task is too difficult or a student is unsuccessful, it hinders motivation.   Make sure a task has the correct amount of difficulty.

5. Feedback - Feedback needs to be immediate (if possible) and the student needs to know the results of his efforts.

 

6. Reward - When a task is rewarding itself, motivation is intrinsic or from within the     student.

 

 

Motivation from a student's point of view

 

Suggestions from a student's view

 1. The instructor gives me a chance to answer as many questions as she does the other students.

 2. The instructor tells me when I'm right and corrects me when I'm wrong.

 3. The instructor spends time sitting or standing near me.

 4. The instructor gives me individual help when I need it.

 5. The instructor gives me praise when I've earned it.

 6. The instructor is courteous with me.

 7. The instructor waits long enough for me to think and then answer the question.

 8. The instructor listens to me when I talk to her.

 9. The instructor gives me clues and tries to help me get the right answer but, she doesn't do the problem for me.

10. The instructor tells me what I've done correctly when she praises me.

11. The instructor expects me to do well.  She/he gives me as many jobs as the other students have.

12. The instructor ignores or discourages poor behavior and corrects me without embarrassing me.

13. The instructor asks me questions that make me think things out.

14. The instructor likes and encourages my ideas and helps me add on to them.

 

 

Working with bilingual students.

 

1. Always speak in a conversational voice at a normal speed.

2. Don't exaggerate intonation patterns.

3. Students need to practice producing sentences in English, therefore the instructor

   shouldn't talk too much.

4. Use gesture, movements, facial expressions, objects, pictures, ect., to help interpret the     situation.

5. When talking to the students, stay reasonably within the vocabulary and sentence patterns they have learned.

6. Be sure all pupils have a chance to participate; don't allow the aggressive ones to monopolize class time.

7. Don't be tightly bound by the answers in the text.  If a student gives a correct, plausible answer, accept it.

8. If you are instructing English, speak English.  If you speak the student's native language, use it as little as possible.

9. Learning a language is difficult

   a. need continual repetition

   b. it takes time

   c. make it meaningful

   d. make it useful

   e. give them time to answer

   f. make it a good experience

10. Don't worry that they don't understand you.  They pick up a great deal.  Give them opportunity to converse back with you with no threats.  Use anything in their  environment to help them to talk.  The more you get them talking the faster they  will learn.

11. If a sound is not in their language, they will have difficulty hearing it in English.   Practice the sounds that are difficult for them.

12. Before starting a lesson, have a warm-up lesson.  Loosen up their speaking mechanism and remember drill and repetitive learning.

13. Give students time to answer.  They hear it in English, translate it to native language, organize thoughts into native language, think up a response in the native language, and then translate to English.

14. Learn about your students' cultural backgrounds. This will help you understand their needs, their responses, and how to respond to them.

 

Teaching English as a Second Language

1. Students need to: hear it, say it, read it, write it.

2. We normally do the least with hearing it.  We mishear a great deal, even if we speak English.  (i.e. milk of amnesia, social plunders, I found it excellerating, Pullet, Surprise).

3. Do whatever it is you want them to do (model).

4. Commands are a good way to begin. "Mrs. Forgey puts on the green sweater"; "Mrs. Forgey takes off the green sweater".  Now have the students do it.  Do not ask anyone to speak unless ready to do so. Students can act out until they're ready to speak.

5. Work on prepositions.  They are one of the hardest things to learn.  Act them out  while you are saying them.  do them several times.  Then have the students act them out while you say them. Then have the students say them as you act them out and say them and so on.  It is good to do a ten-minute exercise each day.

6. Students have problems in hearing vowel sounds.  We have five vowels that have approximately eleven sounds.  Give them many experiences in hearing vowel sounds.

7. Bring as many real things to class as possible (or use pictures).

8. Students need rhyming activities.

9. Before students should learn to read and write they need a good oral base.

10. Even as students become more advanced, if it's new, model it outloud.

11. When helping students read a sentence you might try starting with the end of the sentence.  This usually helps keep intonation patterns correct plus gives them many times to say it.  Start with the ending word then add next word, etc.

12. Writing comes last.  Students can comprehend written words and sentences before

    they can write their own.

13. In writing start with printing (that is what they read) then cursive writing. Many students do not know where and how to join letters.

14. Give exercises in writing where you leave out one word for them to fill in and then progress to leaving out every seventh word in a paragraph.

15. Have students (mo matter what age) dictate a paragraph to you.  Assist them in more correct ways to say it.

16. Give them experiences (as they become more advanced) in writing paragraphs with set vocabulary words. Tell them when (today, yesterday, etc.) and singular or plural.

17. Strive for at least an 80 percent accuracy before going on to the next step.

18. Keep a record of what you have covered and how they have done.  File cards for this purpose.

19. Give useful pronunciation guidance; isolate the syllable where the error occurs, pronounce it correctly, and then model the entire sentence for the student to repeat.

20. Drill each sentence pattern (listening and orally) until students can automatically    

    (without thinking) use it.

Strategies for better classroom discipline

1. Set your standards early.

2. Learn students' names immediately.

3. Be consistent.

4. Follow through.

5. Be fair - but ever firm.

6. Go over class rules and reasons for them.

7. Stress positive approaches.

8. If a problem continues to occur, talk with the student alone.  Share your concerns.  

  Ask the student how he feels and talk together about possible solution.

9. Don't talk at, talk with him.  Let students know you like them.

10. Trust and respect students as unique individuals.

11. Please do not hold grudges.  Treat each day as a new start.

12. When a student misbehaves, there is a reason.  Try, if possible, to find the cause.

13. When disciplining, let the student know you are disappointed with his behavior, not with him as a person.

14. Watch your temper - You might say something you might regret.

15. Treat students with respect.  Remember that you are an instructor and they are learning from you.

16. Look directly at the students to whom you are speaking.

 

17. Speak in a moderate or low voice. Let your voice be pleasant and controlled, not angry and harsh.

18. Do not tolerate "begging" or "teasing" for special privileges.

19. Smile often, but genuinely - you won't get away with syrupy, sweet, habit smiles.

20. Watch your health. It is not fair to snap at students and punish them when you are the one who needs attention.

21. Keep yourself neat and attractive.  The students have to look at you for an hour or two, so make it as pleasant for them as possible.  Use deodorant and ladies need a light perfume, and dress in as good tasted and as attractively as you know how.  

22. Watch yourself for mannerism.  Frowning, squinting, pacing the floor, twitching your nose, using a slang expression repeatedly, may incite the students to pay attention to the mannerism, rather than to the classwork.

23. Develop a sense of humor, and laugh with, not at, the students.

24. Stop unwanted noise as soon as it starts.  Don't make the mistake of thinking the students will get quiet later.

25. If the entire group seems "to squirm", stop and play a simple action game; or have a stretching, jumping or bending exercise for a few minutes.

26. Give every students an equal chance.  Some instructors favor the smart ones.  The other students notice these things.

27. Don't punish the group for the actions of a few.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در سه شنبه بیست و هشتم آبان 1392 و ساعت 23:25 |

     How to become a good English teacher to non-native speakers of English

 

                                                                                                            Joseph Jin Jung

 

There are many ways to teach English, but it is cumbersome to find a perfect way to teach.  Maybe it is impossible to find the perfect and easy way to teach.  However, as we would consider(?) ourselves as decent educators, we just have to find effective ways to teach English well.  It will be ludicrous to say that native speakers of English are the best English teachers.  Just because one can speak English well does not mean that he/she is an excellent English teacher.     

 

To become a good English teacher, one must educate oneself to become one. In fact, a person has to have a desire to become a good teacher.  Of course you can not deny that there are some gifted people who may not need any education or enthusiasm to become a good teacher.  More power to those God gifted people.  Well, I am sorry that I am not one of those people.  I'll be afraid to use the word "gifted people".  But, I can say with my heart that I have a sincere desire of wanting to become a good English teacher and I trained myself to become a good English teacher.

 

Students can see if you are a good teacher.  They will have a respect for you.

It took me over five years to grasp what is needed to become a good English teacher.  What I have learned may not be the best way to teach and may not bring a huge interest to many, but it sure worked for me and many students whom I had a pleasure of teaching.

 

Now, I'd like to share my teaching methods and strategies with you.  The methods and strategies that I'm about to introduce maybe very basic and simple.  It may bore you to death, but please bear with me.

 

Suppose if I were to teach English to a 20 year old native Korean, what advise should I give him?  Let's first examine a 20 year old native English Speaker and look into the fact of how he can speak English well.  It is obvious that the native English speaker had been exposed to, spoken to and listened English for 20 years.  It does not take a miracle for any person to speak English well if he/she has spoken to and in English for 20 years.  Can you imagine how many times he said 'Good morning' or 'how are you' in 20 years.  Probably many, many, many times.  So, if a 20 year old non-native speaker of English wants to speak English well, all he has to do is do the same thing that the native speaker of English did for 20 years.  Did it bore you?

 

The moral of the story is that in order to learn another language

       

 

 

Learning Style

 

Types of learners (learning styles)

  There are basically three types of learners.

    1. Visual

    2. Auditory

    3. Kinesthetic, tactile

 

There are other facilitators that assist learning such as:

 

   1. Activity

   2. Investigation

   3. Experimentation and discovery

   4. Imagination

   5. Asking questions and searching for answers

   6. Using all of senses when possible

   7. Repetition and drill

   8. Sorting and combining objects

   9. Learning step-by-step and in sequence

  10. Modeling

 

To help students to learn, you need to be aware of these classroom learning facilitators.

 

   1. Class structure - Learning is best in a structured environment.

      It lessens student anxiety.

 

   2. Sequence - Learning takes place if in sequence.  You cannot learn to write a paragraph until you've learned how to write a sentence. Ask yourself if you've taught all the parts to the new learning.

 

   3. Pacing - Ask yourself three questions: a) How long (time) should be spent on the new or old learning. b) How often should they practice the new learning.  Students will forget if practice sessions are too far apart.  If they studied it in October, does this mean they will remember it in May?  c) How much of the new learning do they study at a time. If they have 20 spelling words to learn, you might consider having them study five at a time.

 

    4. Closure - In humans there is a powerful drive towards closure.  You shouldn't leave too many things open.  Incomplete work and work never getting done lessens self-esteem.  You need a beginning and an end.

 

    5. Opportunity to gain competence - Students should learn and practice a new learning until they are competent with the new learning.

 

    6. Concrete - abstract - Many learnings need to be made concrete for better understanding.  The term furniture is abstract.  To make concrete you must father chairs, tables, etc.

  

    7. Self-concept - Self-concept is very important to learning.  Students need to feel         self-worth.  Build success into your program.  What we are successful at we like to do.  What we are not successful at we don't like to do.  If we think we can't do it, we usually don't.  Assist students in feeling good about themselves.

  

    8. Guidance - Guide a student to correct answers.  The student should hold the pencil and be doing the work, not the instructor.  If you always tell the student how to spell dog, he doesn't need to learn it for himself.  Provide ways of assisting them to find the answers.

 

    9. Practice - Practice small parts.  Make them meaningful and add more only after those have been learned.  Make practice periods short enough to meet student's attention span requirements.  Do a great deal of practice at the beginning.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.   

   10. Motivation - Whenever a student finds his work too difficult or too easy or boring, he becomes passive.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.

 

   11. Knowledge of results - Students are move sensitive to doing their work if they

       get immediate feedback of test and work results.  The more immediate the feedback, the easier it is for the students to improve his/her performance or correct errors.

 

   12. Length of study - It is better for students to study with sessions spaced with rest periods.

  

   13. Retention - Maintaining what has been learned.

        Retention factors:

         a. Meaning - Give learning as much meaning as possible.

         b. Original learning - Make sure the learning has taken place.

             Test for knowledge.

         c. Make learning pleasant, stimulating, and exciting.

             We remember pleasant things.

 

What is Motivation?

 

Motivation is helping students find the desire or need to learn a task.  It engages his interest, it does not just insist that the student try harder.

 

Suggestions to help you motivate students:

 

1. Tone of voice - The intonation of your voice can help.  Small amounts of pleasant or unpleasant tone will increase motivation. Too much tone, or toneless monotone help decrease motivation.

 

2. Tension - Tension in small doses will help motivate a student.  Too much tension may cause the student to think only of the tension and how to deal with it.  Be careful using tension and treat each student individually.

 

3. Interest - The more interest that is caused the more likely the student will learn.  Let students invent and create.  Use their interests.

 

4. Success - If a task is too difficult or a student is unsuccessful, it hinders motivation.   Make sure a task has the correct amount of difficulty.

5. Feedback - Feedback needs to be immediate (if possible) and the student needs to know the results of his efforts.

 

6. Reward - When a task is rewarding itself, motivation is intrinsic or from within the     student.

 

 

Motivation from a student's point of view

 

Suggestions from a student's view

 1. The instructor gives me a chance to answer as many questions as she does the other students.

 2. The instructor tells me when I'm right and corrects me when I'm wrong.

 3. The instructor spends time sitting or standing near me.

 4. The instructor gives me individual help when I need it.

 5. The instructor gives me praise when I've earned it.

 6. The instructor is courteous with me.

 7. The instructor waits long enough for me to think and then answer the question.

 8. The instructor listens to me when I talk to her.

 9. The instructor gives me clues and tries to help me get the right answer but, she doesn't do the problem for me.

10. The instructor tells me what I've done correctly when she praises me.

11. The instructor expects me to do well.  She/he gives me as many jobs as the other students have.

12. The instructor ignores or discourages poor behavior and corrects me without embarrassing me.

13. The instructor asks me questions that make me think things out.

14. The instructor likes and encourages my ideas and helps me add on to them.

 

 

Working with bilingual students.

 

1. Always speak in a conversational voice at a normal speed.

2. Don't exaggerate intonation patterns.

3. Students need to practice producing sentences in English, therefore the instructor

   shouldn't talk too much.

4. Use gesture, movements, facial expressions, objects, pictures, ect., to help interpret the     situation.

5. When talking to the students, stay reasonably within the vocabulary and sentence patterns they have learned.

6. Be sure all pupils have a chance to participate; don't allow the aggressive ones to monopolize class time.

7. Don't be tightly bound by the answers in the text.  If a student gives a correct, plausible answer, accept it.

8. If you are instructing English, speak English.  If you speak the student's native language, use it as little as possible.

9. Learning a language is difficult

   a. need continual repetition

   b. it takes time

   c. make it meaningful

   d. make it useful

   e. give them time to answer

   f. make it a good experience

10. Don't worry that they don't understand you.  They pick up a great deal.  Give them opportunity to converse back with you with no threats.  Use anything in their  environment to help them to talk.  The more you get them talking the faster they  will learn.

11. If a sound is not in their language, they will have difficulty hearing it in English.   Practice the sounds that are difficult for them.

12. Before starting a lesson, have a warm-up lesson.  Loosen up their speaking mechanism and remember drill and repetitive learning.

13. Give students time to answer.  They hear it in English, translate it to native language, organize thoughts into native language, think up a response in the native language, and then translate to English.

14. Learn about your students' cultural backgrounds. This will help you understand their needs, their responses, and how to respond to them.

 

Teaching English as a Second Language

1. Students need to: hear it, say it, read it, write it.

2. We normally do the least with hearing it.  We mishear a great deal, even if we speak English.  (i.e. milk of amnesia, social plunders, I found it excellerating, Pullet, Surprise).

3. Do whatever it is you want them to do (model).

4. Commands are a good way to begin. "Mrs. Forgey puts on the green sweater"; "Mrs. Forgey takes off the green sweater".  Now have the students do it.  Do not ask anyone to speak unless ready to do so. Students can act out until they're ready to speak.

5. Work on prepositions.  They are one of the hardest things to learn.  Act them out  while you are saying them.  do them several times.  Then have the students act them out while you say them. Then have the students say them as you act them out and say them and so on.  It is good to do a ten-minute exercise each day.

6. Students have problems in hearing vowel sounds.  We have five vowels that have approximately eleven sounds.  Give them many experiences in hearing vowel sounds.

7. Bring as many real things to class as possible (or use pictures).

8. Students need rhyming activities.

9. Before students should learn to read and write they need a good oral base.

10. Even as students become more advanced, if it's new, model it outloud.

11. When helping students read a sentence you might try starting with the end of the sentence.  This usually helps keep intonation patterns correct plus gives them many times to say it.  Start with the ending word then add next word, etc.

12. Writing comes last.  Students can comprehend written words and sentences before

    they can write their own.

13. In writing start with printing (that is what they read) then cursive writing. Many students do not know where and how to join letters.

14. Give exercises in writing where you leave out one word for them to fill in and then progress to leaving out every seventh word in a paragraph.

15. Have students (mo matter what age) dictate a paragraph to you.  Assist them in more correct ways to say it.

16. Give them experiences (as they become more advanced) in writing paragraphs with set vocabulary words. Tell them when (today, yesterday, etc.) and singular or plural.

17. Strive for at least an 80 percent accuracy before going on to the next step.

18. Keep a record of what you have covered and how they have done.  File cards for this purpose.

19. Give useful pronunciation guidance; isolate the syllable where the error occurs, pronounce it correctly, and then model the entire sentence for the student to repeat.

20. Drill each sentence pattern (listening and orally) until students can automatically    

    (without thinking) use it.

Strategies for better classroom discipline

1. Set your standards early.

2. Learn students' names immediately.

3. Be consistent.

4. Follow through.

5. Be fair - but ever firm.

6. Go over class rules and reasons for them.

7. Stress positive approaches.

8. If a problem continues to occur, talk with the student alone.  Share your concerns.  

  Ask the student how he feels and talk together about possible solution.

9. Don't talk at, talk with him.  Let students know you like them.

10. Trust and respect students as unique individuals.

11. Please do not hold grudges.  Treat each day as a new start.

12. When a student misbehaves, there is a reason.  Try, if possible, to find the cause.

13. When disciplining, let the student know you are disappointed with his behavior, not with him as a person.

14. Watch your temper - You might say something you might regret.

15. Treat students with respect.  Remember that you are an instructor and they are learning from you.

16. Look directly at the students to whom you are speaking.

 

17. Speak in a moderate or low voice. Let your voice be pleasant and controlled, not angry and harsh.

18. Do not tolerate "begging" or "teasing" for special privileges.

19. Smile often, but genuinely - you won't get away with syrupy, sweet, habit smiles.

20. Watch your health. It is not fair to snap at students and punish them when you are the one who needs attention.

21. Keep yourself neat and attractive.  The students have to look at you for an hour or two, so make it as pleasant for them as possible.  Use deodorant and ladies need a light perfume, and dress in as good tasted and as attractively as you know how.  

22. Watch yourself for mannerism.  Frowning, squinting, pacing the floor, twitching your nose, using a slang expression repeatedly, may incite the students to pay attention to the mannerism, rather than to the classwork.

23. Develop a sense of humor, and laugh with, not at, the students.

24. Stop unwanted noise as soon as it starts.  Don't make the mistake of thinking the students will get quiet later.

25. If the entire group seems "to squirm", stop and play a simple action game; or have a stretching, jumping or bending exercise for a few minutes.

26. Give every students an equal chance.  Some instructors favor the smart ones.  The other students notice these things.

27. Don't punish the group for the actions of a few.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در سه شنبه بیست و هشتم آبان 1392 و ساعت 22:59 |

     How to become a good English teacher to non-native speakers of English

 

                                                                                                            Joseph Jin Jung

 

There are many ways to teach English, but it is cumbersome to find a perfect way to teach.  Maybe it is impossible to find the perfect and easy way to teach.  However, as we would consider(?) ourselves as decent educators, we just have to find effective ways to teach English well.  It will be ludicrous to say that native speakers of English are the best English teachers.  Just because one can speak English well does not mean that he/she is an excellent English teacher.     

 

To become a good English teacher, one must educate oneself to become one. In fact, a person has to have a desire to become a good teacher.  Of course you can not deny that there are some gifted people who may not need any education or enthusiasm to become a good teacher.  More power to those God gifted people.  Well, I am sorry that I am not one of those people.  I'll be afraid to use the word "gifted people".  But, I can say with my heart that I have a sincere desire of wanting to become a good English teacher and I trained myself to become a good English teacher.

 

Students can see if you are a good teacher.  They will have a respect for you.

It took me over five years to grasp what is needed to become a good English teacher.  What I have learned may not be the best way to teach and may not bring a huge interest to many, but it sure worked for me and many students whom I had a pleasure of teaching.

 

Now, I'd like to share my teaching methods and strategies with you.  The methods and strategies that I'm about to introduce maybe very basic and simple.  It may bore you to death, but please bear with me.

 

Suppose if I were to teach English to a 20 year old native Korean, what advise should I give him?  Let's first examine a 20 year old native English Speaker and look into the fact of how he can speak English well.  It is obvious that the native English speaker had been exposed to, spoken to and listened English for 20 years.  It does not take a miracle for any person to speak English well if he/she has spoken to and in English for 20 years.  Can you imagine how many times he said 'Good morning' or 'how are you' in 20 years.  Probably many, many, many times.  So, if a 20 year old non-native speaker of English wants to speak English well, all he has to do is do the same thing that the native speaker of English did for 20 years.  Did it bore you?

 

The moral of the story is that in order to learn another language

       

 

 

Learning Style

 

Types of learners (learning styles)

  There are basically three types of learners.

    1. Visual

    2. Auditory

    3. Kinesthetic, tactile

 

There are other facilitators that assist learning such as:

 

   1. Activity

   2. Investigation

   3. Experimentation and discovery

   4. Imagination

   5. Asking questions and searching for answers

   6. Using all of senses when possible

   7. Repetition and drill

   8. Sorting and combining objects

   9. Learning step-by-step and in sequence

  10. Modeling

 

To help students to learn, you need to be aware of these classroom learning facilitators.

 

   1. Class structure - Learning is best in a structured environment.

      It lessens student anxiety.

 

   2. Sequence - Learning takes place if in sequence.  You cannot learn to write a paragraph until you've learned how to write a sentence. Ask yourself if you've taught all the parts to the new learning.

 

   3. Pacing - Ask yourself three questions: a) How long (time) should be spent on the new or old learning. b) How often should they practice the new learning.  Students will forget if practice sessions are too far apart.  If they studied it in October, does this mean they will remember it in May?  c) How much of the new learning do they study at a time. If they have 20 spelling words to learn, you might consider having them study five at a time.

 

    4. Closure - In humans there is a powerful drive towards closure.  You shouldn't leave too many things open.  Incomplete work and work never getting done lessens self-esteem.  You need a beginning and an end.

 

    5. Opportunity to gain competence - Students should learn and practice a new learning until they are competent with the new learning.

 

    6. Concrete - abstract - Many learnings need to be made concrete for better understanding.  The term furniture is abstract.  To make concrete you must father chairs, tables, etc.

  

    7. Self-concept - Self-concept is very important to learning.  Students need to feel         self-worth.  Build success into your program.  What we are successful at we like to do.  What we are not successful at we don't like to do.  If we think we can't do it, we usually don't.  Assist students in feeling good about themselves.

  

    8. Guidance - Guide a student to correct answers.  The student should hold the pencil and be doing the work, not the instructor.  If you always tell the student how to spell dog, he doesn't need to learn it for himself.  Provide ways of assisting them to find the answers.

 

    9. Practice - Practice small parts.  Make them meaningful and add more only after those have been learned.  Make practice periods short enough to meet student's attention span requirements.  Do a great deal of practice at the beginning.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.   

   10. Motivation - Whenever a student finds his work too difficult or too easy or boring, he becomes passive.  Once the material is learned then review practice to retain material.

 

   11. Knowledge of results - Students are move sensitive to doing their work if they

       get immediate feedback of test and work results.  The more immediate the feedback, the easier it is for the students to improve his/her performance or correct errors.

 

   12. Length of study - It is better for students to study with sessions spaced with rest periods.

  

   13. Retention - Maintaining what has been learned.

        Retention factors:

         a. Meaning - Give learning as much meaning as possible.

         b. Original learning - Make sure the learning has taken place.

             Test for knowledge.

         c. Make learning pleasant, stimulating, and exciting.

             We remember pleasant things.

 

What is Motivation?

 

Motivation is helping students find the desire or need to learn a task.  It engages his interest, it does not just insist that the student try harder.

 

Suggestions to help you motivate students:

 

1. Tone of voice - The intonation of your voice can help.  Small amounts of pleasant or unpleasant tone will increase motivation. Too much tone, or toneless monotone help decrease motivation.

 

2. Tension - Tension in small doses will help motivate a student.  Too much tension may cause the student to think only of the tension and how to deal with it.  Be careful using tension and treat each student individually.

 

3. Interest - The more interest that is caused the more likely the student will learn.  Let students invent and create.  Use their interests.

 

4. Success - If a task is too difficult or a student is unsuccessful, it hinders motivation.   Make sure a task has the correct amount of difficulty.

5. Feedback - Feedback needs to be immediate (if possible) and the student needs to know the results of his efforts.

 

6. Reward - When a task is rewarding itself, motivation is intrinsic or from within the     student.

 

 

Motivation from a student's point of view

 

Suggestions from a student's view

 1. The instructor gives me a chance to answer as many questions as she does the other students.

 2. The instructor tells me when I'm right and corrects me when I'm wrong.

 3. The instructor spends time sitting or standing near me.

 4. The instructor gives me individual help when I need it.

 5. The instructor gives me praise when I've earned it.

 6. The instructor is courteous with me.

 7. The instructor waits long enough for me to think and then answer the question.

 8. The instructor listens to me when I talk to her.

 9. The instructor gives me clues and tries to help me get the right answer but, she doesn't do the problem for me.

10. The instructor tells me what I've done correctly when she praises me.

11. The instructor expects me to do well.  She/he gives me as many jobs as the other students have.

12. The instructor ignores or discourages poor behavior and corrects me without embarrassing me.

13. The instructor asks me questions that make me think things out.

14. The instructor likes and encourages my ideas and helps me add on to them.

 

 

Working with bilingual students.

 

1. Always speak in a conversational voice at a normal speed.

2. Don't exaggerate intonation patterns.

3. Students need to practice producing sentences in English, therefore the instructor

   shouldn't talk too much.

4. Use gesture, movements, facial expressions, objects, pictures, ect., to help interpret the     situation.

5. When talking to the students, stay reasonably within the vocabulary and sentence patterns they have learned.

6. Be sure all pupils have a chance to participate; don't allow the aggressive ones to monopolize class time.

7. Don't be tightly bound by the answers in the text.  If a student gives a correct, plausible answer, accept it.

8. If you are instructing English, speak English.  If you speak the student's native language, use it as little as possible.

9. Learning a language is difficult

   a. need continual repetition

   b. it takes time

   c. make it meaningful

   d. make it useful

   e. give them time to answer

   f. make it a good experience

10. Don't worry that they don't understand you.  They pick up a great deal.  Give them opportunity to converse back with you with no threats.  Use anything in their  environment to help them to talk.  The more you get them talking the faster they  will learn.

11. If a sound is not in their language, they will have difficulty hearing it in English.   Practice the sounds that are difficult for them.

12. Before starting a lesson, have a warm-up lesson.  Loosen up their speaking mechanism and remember drill and repetitive learning.

13. Give students time to answer.  They hear it in English, translate it to native language, organize thoughts into native language, think up a response in the native language, and then translate to English.

14. Learn about your students' cultural backgrounds. This will help you understand their needs, their responses, and how to respond to them.

 

Teaching English as a Second Language

1. Students need to: hear it, say it, read it, write it.

2. We normally do the least with hearing it.  We mishear a great deal, even if we speak English.  (i.e. milk of amnesia, social plunders, I found it excellerating, Pullet, Surprise).

3. Do whatever it is you want them to do (model).

4. Commands are a good way to begin. "Mrs. Forgey puts on the green sweater"; "Mrs. Forgey takes off the green sweater".  Now have the students do it.  Do not ask anyone to speak unless ready to do so. Students can act out until they're ready to speak.

5. Work on prepositions.  They are one of the hardest things to learn.  Act them out  while you are saying them.  do them several times.  Then have the students act them out while you say them. Then have the students say them as you act them out and say them and so on.  It is good to do a ten-minute exercise each day.

6. Students have problems in hearing vowel sounds.  We have five vowels that have approximately eleven sounds.  Give them many experiences in hearing vowel sounds.

7. Bring as many real things to class as possible (or use pictures).

8. Students need rhyming activities.

9. Before students should learn to read and write they need a good oral base.

10. Even as students become more advanced, if it's new, model it outloud.

11. When helping students read a sentence you might try starting with the end of the sentence.  This usually helps keep intonation patterns correct plus gives them many times to say it.  Start with the ending word then add next word, etc.

12. Writing comes last.  Students can comprehend written words and sentences before

    they can write their own.

13. In writing start with printing (that is what they read) then cursive writing. Many students do not know where and how to join letters.

14. Give exercises in writing where you leave out one word for them to fill in and then progress to leaving out every seventh word in a paragraph.

15. Have students (mo matter what age) dictate a paragraph to you.  Assist them in more correct ways to say it.

16. Give them experiences (as they become more advanced) in writing paragraphs with set vocabulary words. Tell them when (today, yesterday, etc.) and singular or plural.

17. Strive for at least an 80 percent accuracy before going on to the next step.

18. Keep a record of what you have covered and how they have done.  File cards for this purpose.

19. Give useful pronunciation guidance; isolate the syllable where the error occurs, pronounce it correctly, and then model the entire sentence for the student to repeat.

20. Drill each sentence pattern (listening and orally) until students can automatically    

    (without thinking) use it.

Strategies for better classroom discipline

1. Set your standards early.

2. Learn students' names immediately.

3. Be consistent.

4. Follow through.

5. Be fair - but ever firm.

6. Go over class rules and reasons for them.

7. Stress positive approaches.

8. If a problem continues to occur, talk with the student alone.  Share your concerns.  

  Ask the student how he feels and talk together about possible solution.

9. Don't talk at, talk with him.  Let students know you like them.

10. Trust and respect students as unique individuals.

11. Please do not hold grudges.  Treat each day as a new start.

12. When a student misbehaves, there is a reason.  Try, if possible, to find the cause.

13. When disciplining, let the student know you are disappointed with his behavior, not with him as a person.

14. Watch your temper - You might say something you might regret.

15. Treat students with respect.  Remember that you are an instructor and they are learning from you.

16. Look directly at the students to whom you are speaking.

 

17. Speak in a moderate or low voice. Let your voice be pleasant and controlled, not angry and harsh.

18. Do not tolerate "begging" or "teasing" for special privileges.

19. Smile often, but genuinely - you won't get away with syrupy, sweet, habit smiles.

20. Watch your health. It is not fair to snap at students and punish them when you are the one who needs attention.

21. Keep yourself neat and attractive.  The students have to look at you for an hour or two, so make it as pleasant for them as possible.  Use deodorant and ladies need a light perfume, and dress in as good tasted and as attractively as you know how.  

22. Watch yourself for mannerism.  Frowning, squinting, pacing the floor, twitching your nose, using a slang expression repeatedly, may incite the students to pay attention to the mannerism, rather than to the classwork.

23. Develop a sense of humor, and laugh with, not at, the students.

24. Stop unwanted noise as soon as it starts.  Don't make the mistake of thinking the students will get quiet later.

25. If the entire group seems "to squirm", stop and play a simple action game; or have a stretching, jumping or bending exercise for a few minutes.

26. Give every students an equal chance.  Some instructors favor the smart ones.  The other students notice these things.

27. Don't punish the group for the actions of a few.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در سه شنبه بیست و هشتم آبان 1392 و ساعت 22:56 |
English and American English Spelling
Here are the principal differences in spelling between English and American English.

Final -l is always doubled after one vowel in stressed and unstressed syllables in English but usually only in stressed syllables in American English, for example:

ENGLISH                                         AMERICAN
rebel > rebelled                             rebel > rebelled
travel > travelled                          travel > traveled

Some words end in -tre in English and -ter in American English, for example:
ENGLISH                                        AMERICAN
center                                            center
theater                                          theater
Some words end in -ogue in English and -og in American English, for example:
ENGLISH                                       AMERICAN
analogue                                      analog
catalogue                                    catalog
Some words end in -our in English and -or in American English, for example:
ENGLISH                                     AMERICAN
colour                                          color
labour                                          labor
Some verbs end in -ize or -ise in English but only in -ize in American English, for example:
ENGLISH                                    AMERICAN
realise, realize                          realize
harmonise, harmonize            harmonize

Common Differences

English         American English

all right         all right, alright (disputed)
analyse        analyze
centre          center
cheque         check
colour             color
counsellor    counselor
criticise, criticize    criticize
defence        defense
doughnut      donut
favour             favor
fibre              fiber
flavour                      flavor
fulfil                       fulfill
grey                       gray
honour                       honor
humour                       humor
jewellery    jewellery,   jewelry
judgement, judgment    judgment
kerb                      curb
labour                      labor
license,                      licence (verb)
licence (noun)    license (verb)
license (noun)
litre                      liter
metre                      meter
mould                      mold
neighbour    neighbor
offence                      offense
practise (verb)
practice (noun)    practice (verb)
practice (noun)
pretence       pretense
programme    program
pyjamas                      pajamas
realise or realize    realize
savour                      savor
speciality                     specialty
theatre                     theater
travelled
travelling    travelled,  traveled
travelling,                traveling
tyre                    tire
valour                    valor







+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در دوشنبه دوم آبان 1390 و ساعت 21:44 |
در این مجموعه سعی شده مهمترین لغات موصولی برای ساخت جملات در قسمت نوشتن آزمون تافل و یا آیلتس به همراه مٍثال آورده شود.به یاد داشته باشید که استفاده از اینگونه لغات برای اتصال ایده های مختلف یکی از اصول اولیه
 و اساسی مقاله نویسی میباشد.
 
1- Although not completely satisfied with the contract, the officials reluctantly agreed to sign it.

2- Their children may be born with blue eyes, although both parents have brown eyes.

3- Penguins are the most highly specialized of all aquatic birds; moreover, they may live for twenty years.

4- Empowerment increases the autonomy of employees in organizations; moreover, it improves communication between workers and management.

5- Penguins may live for twenty years; however, they have several obstacles to their survival.

6- Humor is associated with fun; however, it is also used as a coping strategy to relieve stress.

7- The Romans invaded England while the Celts were living there.

8- While I'm listening to music, I can study.

9- The amount of land and water cannot be increased; therefore, efficient agricultural methods must be employed.

10- Pain warns the victim before further damage is done; therefore, pain has a positive function.

11- Many of the names of cities in California are adapted from the Spanish language because of the influence in the area of early settlers from Spain.

12- Plants can turn brown because of too much water.

13- The Atlantic Ocean is larger but it is not deeper than Indian Ocean.

14- The idea of an English language academy is regularly proposed, but the response has never been positive.

15- Even though young people enjoy an advantage for recall in vocabulary studies, older people appear to be better at word recognition.

16- Even though solar panels can convert sunlight into electricity, they are still not being exploited fully.

17- Technically, both water and glass are considered minerals.

18- Both genes and viruses are made of essential chemicals called nucleoproteins.

19- Helium replaced hydrogen as a power source for dirigibles because it was safer.

20- This is not an excellent paraphrase because it looks too much like the original.

21- She was quite sick; nevertheless, she attended all of her classes.

22- His project was flawed; nevertheless, it won second prize.

23- Did he indeed go to the hospital?

24- It is very hot indeed.

25- The action of light waves is similar to the action of sound waves.

26- The behavior of the bacteria in the lab is not similar to the behavior of the bacteria in the human body.

27- The revolutionary change affected the types of clothes worn by most women. For example, trousers became acceptable attire for almost all activities.

28- Vitamins are commonly added to many foods in order to increase their nutritional value. For example, vitamins A and D are added to dairy products.

29- The most effective way to feel more energetic is to engage in aerobic activity at least three times a week. Such activities may include jogging, running, swimming, and dancing.

30- Some animals have color patterns that blend with their surroundings. Such coloration serves for protection, to attract mates, or to distract enemies.

31- The scientists have collected physical evidence, such as footprints, body parts, and photographs.

32- Scientific disciplines, such as genetic engineering and computer science, are exploding with possibilities.

33- As a result of progress brought about by new technologies, many methods to detect and treat diseases are sure to be developed.

34- Conflict theory refers to the theoretical approach that views social phenomena as a result of conflict between individuals or groups.

35- Using infrared detectors, astronomers can observe cooler celestial objects than they can with optical devices, since infrared radiation is less affected by dust than is light.

36- A tooth-like structure of newborn chick is then shed since it's only use is to help the bird break the eggshell.

37- Deer often wander into traffic, and cause automobile accidents; thus, many residents are determined to restrict their movements.

38- Lunar years were not convenient for agricultural purposes; thus, to keep in step with the sun, lunar-solar calendars were formed.

39- Bilateria animals have bilateral symmetry. In contrast, multicellular animals have radial symmetry.

40- Many songbirds in temperate zones reveal a drab plumage during the winter, in contrast to their brilliant springtime plumage.

41- Early advocates of ballooning thought it would transform international travel. Instead, the cost of launching a  balloon, and the problem of controlling a balloon in high winds have kept ballooning from becoming more than a hobby.

42- Instead of  advantages, they see disadvantages in moving to the city.

43- Social anthropologists attempt to illustrate the social emergence and evolution of the human race.

44- Through this experiment, the chemists tried to illustrate how certain chemicals can react violently when combined.

45- Many trusts did not know how to preserve the roads.

46- I don't know how to reach my goal.

47- Canada has a low home consumption and depends on foreign trade. The United States, on the other hand, has an immense domestic market.

48- Children who are disciplined with harsh power strategies tend to become aggressive. on the other hand, children who experience the withholding of affection, can develop feelings of insecurity.

49- More fuel is required for a headwind. Furthermore, weather conditions will be influenced by the position of the jet stream relative to the flight pattern.

50,51- The structure is not typical of the international school. Furthermore, the form of a ship in the harbor does not serve a functional purpose. Finally, the computer technology required to create the design of the roof.

52- Computers have changed the way that nations interact with each other. One type of communication that has been greatly affected is international mail. Another way is in the way that people assemble in meetings and conferences. Finally, computers have influenced the language of communication around the world.

53- Stress converges on college students from many directions. First, there is the pressure to choose a major field of study. Second, there is the daily stress from competition in the classroom.

54- Recent criticism calls into question both the procedure for the experiment and the conclusions. First, the mixture was subjected to constant electrical stimulation. Second, the amino acids that were created in the laboratory were probably more concentrated than those produced in the natural environment. Third, there is some question about the amount of oxygen that was reduced from the experimental mixture.

55- one type of communication that has been greatly affected by the computer is international mail. For instance, a letter from the United States to my country would take weeks for delivery. Now mail can be delivered instantly by electronic mail.

56- Many European countries are agricultural, and their populations are unevenly distributed. For instance, Paris has 20000 inhabitants per square kilometer, while many parts of the rest of the country contain fewer than 20 people per square kilometer.

57- Due to astounding progress of integrated-circuit technology, an enormous number of transistors can be placed onto a single chip.

58- Gold and silver were common components of dentures. As a result, they were very expensive.

59- On the contrary to popular opinion, the origin of the circus is relatively recent.

60- Technically, not only glass but also water are considered minerals.

61- Not only corn but also winter wheat are native to the Americas.

62- Ethnicity is usually based on race and religion as well as national origin.

63- The weight of objects on the Earth's surface is not the same. One reason is the difference in the gravitational attraction of various places.

64- Viruses have the structure that is like that of the first life forms that appeared on Earth thousands of years ago.

65- Whereas insulin levels are close to normal in type 2 diabetes, target cells cannot respond adequately.

66- The addiction to gambling is like the addiction to substances.

67- Due to temperature variations, pressure differences in the air can happen.

68- Metabolism and exercise are equally important to stabilize consumption and production of energy for a healthy weight.

69- He succeeded in teaching as well as business.

70- After hitting a bar several times with similar results, an animal learns certainly it can get food by pressing the bar.

71- Poe wrote so many short stories, but most importantly he is remembered for his poems.

72- In fact, everything in the universe was reduced to pure energy in one atom.

73- During the winter, bear's temperature is normal; also, it's respiration is regular.

74- Surely she wants to go with you tonight.

75- In a manager opinion, the efficiency of employees is the most important factor. Consequently, it does not matter where employees work at their computers.

76- All of the following options are correct except for one of them.

77- The addiction to gambling is unlike the addiction to substances.

78- She likes Rock music. I like it too.

79- I look forward to the years after college with the hope that the best is yet to be.

80- She goes to the party tonight.
       I go too. So, I guess I see her tonight.

81- He is A.C.Milan fan. Conversely, I hate this team.

82- Chipmunks are mostly like other ground squirrels except for their smaller size.

83- Whereas alcohol is a depressant, coffee is a stimulant.

84- The modern atmosphere is clearly the fourth atmosphere in the history of the Earth.

85- The Pacific Basin is also called Oceania.

86- In fact, the ethics of science will become more important in this decade.

87- Psychology focuses on the individual. Conversely, sociology focuses on social groups.

88- I call my idea the simplification principle. Another name for that is basic theory.

89- The three-domain system is certainly superior to the five-domain system of classification in biology.

90- In this case, the term relief describes any printing method with a raised image.

91- Quasars are so far away. As a result, they are difficult to study.

92- Patients can lower their blood pressure by losing weight. Another way is to decrease their intake of salt.

93- In this case, an organ is a group of tissues capable of performing some special function.

94,95- At this point, correlations are not causes. Consequently, statistical data can be very difficult to interpret.

96- Most importantly, moving water is the factor in determining the surface features of the Earth.

97- Surely the most important quality for a scientist is the ability to make careful observations.

98- Engineers use magnesium for their designs. One reason is their need for lightweight metals.

99- I have to bring the book back until Saturday; otherwise, I must pay extra because of my delay.

100- Charlie Chaplin was a comedian who clearly was best known for his work in silent movies.

101- Water is heated to 212 degrees F. At this point, it becomes steam.

102- The root system of the alfalfa plant allows it to survive. Accordingly, drought conditions do not kill alfalfa.

103- Unlike the rattlesnake, the copperhead attacks without warning.

104- He was a reputable and prudent businessman; otherwise, he was not able to convince others to remain in the market.

105- Phosphorus is bright at night. Accordingly, it is used in paint on highway signs and markers.

106- In mammals, the male of the species is more beautiful. Similarly, in birds, the male of the species is more brilliantly colored.

107- In algebra, letters and other symbols are the same as numbers.

108- Frozen peas aren't the same as fresh.

109- He looks more serious rather than kind to me.

110- Money and knowledge are equally important to everyone's life.                                  
+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در دوشنبه دوم آبان 1390 و ساعت 21:36 |
beggars cant be choosers    دندون اسب پیشکش رو که نمیشمرند                            
practice makes perfect         کار نیکو کردن از پر کردن است                               
all that glitters is not gold              هر گردی گردو نیست                                       
they slighted me=they gave me a cold shoulder =   به من کم محلی کردن           
keep your hands to yourself=                          دستتو بکش!          
that car is too rich for my blood=    اون ماشین به گروه خون من نمیخوره(خیلی گرونه
he is still up in the air=         هنوز پا در هواست و تصمیمشو نگرفته (undecided person)
who the deuce do you think you are?=مردک فکر کردی کی هستی
who the hell do you think you are?=مردک فکر کردی کی هستی؟
 He is a chain smoker=       اون آتیش به آتیش سیگار میکشه (خیلی سیگار میکشه)
chain store =                   فروشگاه زنجیره ای                                                         
arms race=     مسابقه تسلیحاتی بین ابر قدرتها                                                 
down payment=           پول پیش-پیش پرداخت                                                   
she is my steady=               اون رفیق فابریکمه                                                 
he goes steady=                         اون تک پره                                                        
I'll eat my hat if….=      اسممو عوض میکنم اگه                                     
I lost my temper suddenly  یک دفعه از کوره در رفتم
from A to Z=            از سیر تا پیاز-از اول تا آخر                                                            
you are all thumbs=     دستو پا چلفتی هستی                                               
heart speaks to heart=        دل به دل راه داره                                               
I fell in love with you at first sight  =تو همون نگاه اول عاشقت شدم
you never know your luck=    دنیا رو چه دیدی                                

 
+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در دوشنبه دوم آبان 1390 و ساعت 21:32 |
 
   
 
 
 
 
در زبان انگلیسی افعال زیادی وجود دارند که در حالت استمراری استفاده می شوند مانند
Present continuous – I’m working at the moment.
Past continuous – Jack was cooking dinner when I arrived.
Future continuous – I will be playing tennis this time tomorrow.
Present perfect continuous – She’s been working her for three years. 
بطور معمول زمان استمراری برای بیان کاری است که در زمانی خاص در حال انجام است و تاکید این زمان بر روی فعل و استمرار آن میباشد ولی باید توجه داشت که مجموعه ای از افعال وجود دارند که هرگز یا به ندرت بصورت استمراری بکار میروند که آگاهی از این افعال که خود به چند دسته زیر تقسیم میشوند برای آزمونهایی چون آیلتس و تافل امری الزامی است چرا که نمایانگر سطح دانش زبانی و نشان از تسلط فرد به استاندارد های زبانی دارد از این رو به تمامی زبانآموزان  تو صیه میگردد افعال زیر را با مثالهای متعدد فرا گرفته و کنترل خود را در بکار بردن صحیح آنها افزایش دهند 
 

افعالی که بیانگر حالت روحی و احساسی میباشند   
believe
dislike
doubt
imagine
know
like
love
hate
prefer
realize
recognize
remember
suppose
understand
want
wish
Examples
She dislikes that boy. NOT She is disliking that boy.
Jack prefers going out for dinner tonight. NOT Jack is preferring going out for dinner tonight.
I recognize you! NOT I’m recognizing you!
 
افعال حسی
appear
hear
see
seem
smell
sound
taste
Examples
I saw him when the train arrived. NOT I was seeing him when the train arrived.
It tastes strange. NOT It is tasting strange.
Did you hear that? NOT Were you hearing that?
 
افعال ارتباط کلامی
agree
astonish
deny
disagree
impress
mean
please
promise
satisfy
surprise
Examples
You astonish me! NOT You are astonishing me!
I’m afraid I disagree with you. NOT I’m afraid I am disagreeing with you.
I meant to tell him yesterday afternoon. NOT I was meaning to tell him yesterday afternoon.
افعال گوناگون
be
belong
concern
consist
contain
cost
depend
deserve
fit
include
involve
lack
matter
need
owe
own
possess
Examples
It depends on how much it costs. NOT It is depending on how much it is costing.
She said it involved a lot of work. NOT She said it was involving a lot of work.
It doesn’t matter. NOT It isn’t mattering.
دسته ای دیگر از افعال نیز وجود دارند که در یک معنا استمرار نمیگیرند ولی در معنایی دیگر حالت استمرار دارند مانند
 

 معنای غیر استمراری
feel = ‘have an opinion’ – He feels he should get a second chance.
see = ‘understand’ – I see what you mean.
think = ‘have an opinion’ – I think we should leave immediately.
appear = ‘look like’ – That appears to be stale.
look = ‘seem’ – It looks impossible!
taste = ‘have a taste’ – That tastes yummy!
 
معنای استمراری
feel = ‘feel physically’ – I’m feeling awful this afternoon.
see = ‘visit’ – She’s seeing a doctor this morning.
think = ‘use the brain’ – He’s thinking hard about the problem.
appear = ‘be on stage / perform’ – Jack Daniels is performing at the Paramount tonight.
look = ‘stare at’ – I’m looking at that strange man.
taste = ‘use the mouth’ – The cook is tasting the sauce!
+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در دوشنبه دوم آبان 1390 و ساعت 21:23 |
 
 
The following idioms and expressions use the construction 'as ... as'. Each idiom or expression has a definition and two example sentences to help understanding of these common idiomatic expressions with 'as ... as'.

as bad as all that

Definition: As bad something appears to be

It isn't as bad as all that. You'll be fine tomorrow.
Losing the game isn't as bad as all that.

as big as life

Definition: An exaggerated way to state that someone appeared in a particular place.

There I saw him as big as life!
John came in the room and stood there as big as life.

as black as pitch

Definition: Very dark

I couldn't see a thing in the room because it was as black as pitch.
I can't see a thing. It's as black as pitch. Get a flashlight.

as blind as a bat

Definition: Very bad eyesight-humorously

He's as blind as a bat. You can believe what he says.
That ball was in! You're as blind as a bat!

as busy as a beaver / as busy as a bee

Definition: Very busy

I was as busy as a bee over the weekend. I got a lot done.
He's always as busy as a beaver. I wonder if he ever takes a break.

as clean as a whistle


Definition: Very clean

That car is as clean as a whistle now that you've washed it.
I like to keep my desk as clean as a whistle.

as clear as crystal

Definition: Very clear and understandable

Let me be as clear as crystal. Hurry up!
She was as clear as crystal about her intentions.

as cool as a cucumber

Definition: Calm and not nervous

You have to remain as cool as a cucumber to be successful.
I stayed as cool as a cucumber as finished the exercise.

as crazy as a loon

Definition: Very crazy

She's as crazy as a loon. You can't believe a word she says.
I wouldn't worry about his opinion, he's as crazy as a loon.

as dead as a doornail

Definition: dead

That's as dead as a doornail. Forget about it.
The project is as dead as a doornail.

as easy as pie


Definition: Very easy

You'll find the exercise is as easy as pie.
This game is as easy as pie.

as far as possible

Definition: As much as possible

I'll see what I can do as far as possible.
She went as far as possible in trying to get the project approved.

as flat as a pancake


Definition: Very flat

Kansas is as flat as a pancake.
Make sure the table is as a flat as a pancake.

as free as a bird


Definition: Feeling very free and care easy

Our children are away for the weekend so we're as free as a bird.
I used to feel as free as a bird when I was younger.

as good as done

Definition: Almost done

The job is as good as done.
We're almost ready to begin. The cake is as good as done.

as happy as a clam


Definition: Very happy and content

I'm as happy as a clam living in Portland.
She seemed as happy as a clam yesterday.

as hard as nails

Definition: Cruel and very hard

He's as hard as nails with his staff.
Don't work for her. She's as hard as nails.

as hungry as a bear


Definition: Very hungry

Do you have a sandwich? I'm as hungry as a bear.
When we arrived I was as hungry as a bear.

as innocent as a lamb

Definition: Without guilt

There's no way she could have done that. She's as innocent as a lamb.
He's only pretending to be as innocent as a lamb.

as mad as a hatter


Definition: Crazy

Don't believe anything he says. He's as mad as a hatter.
They threw him out of court because he was as mad as a hatter.

as old as the hills


Definition: Very old

My aunt is as old as the hills.
That car is as old as the hills.

as plain as day

Definition: Simple, clear

The facts are as plain as day.
What you need to do is as plain as day.

as pleased as punch


Definition: Very happy with something

He's as pleased as punch with the new boss.
She's as pleased as punch with her new car.

as quiet as a mouse


Definition: Very quiet, shy

She sat in the corner and was as quiet as a mouse at the party.
Can you believe that he was as quiet as a mouse when he was a boy?

as right as rain

Definition: Genuine and true

Yes, that's as a right as rain!
She feels his views are as right as rain.

as sick as a dog


Definition: Very sick

My brother is at home as sick as a dog.
I'm feeling as sick as a dog. I think I need to go home.

As sly as a fox

Definition: Smart and clever

She understood the situation and used it to her advantage because she's as sly as a fox.
Don't trust him because he's as sly as a fox.

as soon as possible

Definition: At the earliest moment possible

Could you reply to my request as soon as possible.
+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در دوشنبه دوم آبان 1390 و ساعت 20:37 |

ابزارها

(براي ديدن معني فارسي، اشاره‌گر ماوس را روی تصوير مربوطه نگه داريد.)
 

آچار

 

Wrench

اره

 

Saw

انبردست

Pliers

بيل

 

Shovel

 

 

 

 

پيچ

 

 Screw

پيچ گوشتي

 

 Screwdriver

تلمبه

 

 Plunger

تبر

 

Axe

 

 

 

 

چراغ قوه

 

 Flashlight

چکش

 

 Hammer

طناب

 

 Rope

قلم مو

 

 Brush

 

 

 

 

کاردک

 

 Scraper

قيچی

 

 Scissors

مهره

 Nut

ميخ

 

 Nail

 

وسايل آموزشي

(براي ديدن معني فارسي، اشاره‌گر ماوس را روی تصوير مربوطه نگه داريد.)
 

خودکار

 

Pen

مداد

 

Pencil

پاک کن

 

Eraser (rubber)

مداد تراش

 

Pencil sharpener

       

مداد رنگي

 

Colored pencils

پرگار

 

Compasses

گيره کاغذ

 

Clips

زيردستي

 

Clipboard

   

 

 

خطکش

 

Ruler

منگنه

 

Stapler

نوار چسب پلاستيکي

 

Sellotape

سوراخ کن

 

Puncher

       

فرهنگ لغت

 زبان آموزان

Dictionary

ماشين حساب

 

Calculator

ميکروسکوپ

 

Microscope

تلسکوپ

 

Telescope

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در یکشنبه بیست و چهارم مهر 1390 و ساعت 19:30 |

زمان حال ساده

 

ساختار

قید زمان حال ساده+مفعول+فعل اصلی+فاعل

جمع

go,

play,

don't work

we

you

they

مفرد

go, play,
don't work

I, you

goes, plays, doesn't work

he, she, it

 

کاربرد

زمان حال ساده يکي از متداول‌ترين زمانها در زبان انگليسي مي‌باشد که براي مقاصد زير مورد استفاده قرار مي‌گيرد:

1- براي بيان عملي که هميشه تکرار مي‌شود، مانند يک عادت يا رسم:

  • I go to school by bus.

  • We get up at 7 AM.

  • 'Does he smoke?' 'No, he doesn't.'

 

2- براي بیان حقیقتی که همیشه یا معمولاً درست است:

  • The earth orbits the sun. زمین به دور خورشید می چرخد

  • I come from Iran.

  • Some animals migrate in winter. (بعضي از حيوانات در زمستان مهاجرت مي‌کنند

 

3- براي بيان حقيقتي که براي مدتي (طولاني) دوام داشته باشد:

  • I work in a shop.

  • She lives in a small cottage.

 

زمان حال ساده اغلب با قيدهاي تکرار مورد استفاده قرار مي‌گيرند. مهمترين قيدهاي تکرار (frequency adverbs) عبارتند از:

never     rarely     sometimes     often     usually     always
0%................................. 50% .................................100%

  • I usually play football with my friends.

  • I never go shopping.

  • sometimes she plays piano for us.

 

نکاتي در مورد هجي (verb + s)

1- افعالي که به x, ch, sh, ss و o ختم مي‌شوند، به جاي es ، s مي‌گيرند:

kisses, washes, watches, does, boxes

2- افعالي که به y ختم مي‌شوند و قبل از آن حرف بي‌صدايي بيايد، y به ies تبديل مي‌شود:

try, tries     hurry, hurries     fly, flies

ولي آن دسته از افعالي که به y ختم مي‌شوند و قبل از آن يک حرف صدادار وجود دارد، تنها يک s مي‌گيرند:

plays, buys, enjoys

 

زمان حال استمراري

ساختار

 

coming

doing

going

taking

'm

am

I

're

are

you

we

they

's

is

he

she

it

کاربرد

1- براي بيان عملي که هم‌اکنون جريان دارد:

  • She is watching the TV.

  • He is working at the moment.

2- براي بيان عملي يا موقعيتي که در حال حاضر در حال وقوع مي‌باشد، اما الزاماً در همين زمان صحبت کردن در حال رخ دادن نيست:

  • I'm reading an exciting book.

  • He is learning Arabic.

(توجه داشته باشيد که مثلاً در جمله‌ اول، شخص گوينده ممکن است در همين لحظه مشغول مطالعه کتاب باشد و يا اينکه ممکن است منظورش اين باشد که مدتي است مشغول مطالعه کتاب است ولي هنوز تمام نشده است.)

3- براي بيان قراري تعيين شده در آينده:

  • I am meeting him at the park.

4- براي بيان كار يا شرايطي موقتي:

  • I'm living in a small flat now, but I'm trying to find a better one.
    (در حال حاضر در يک آپارتمان کوچک زندگي مي‌کنم، اما دارم سعي مي‌کنم يک بهترش را پيدا کنم)

 

نكاتي در مورد هجي (افعال ing دار)

1- افعالي که به يک e ختم مي‌شوند، آن e حذف مي‌شود:

come, coming     take, taking     write, writing

ولي در مورد افعالي که به ee ختم مي‌شوند، اين قاعده صدق نمي‌کند:

agree, agreeing     see, seeing

2- در افعال يک بخشي (يک هجايي) که داراي يک حرف صدادار و يک حرف بي‌صدا مي‌باشند، حرف بي‌صداي آخر تکرار مي‌شود:

running, stopping, getting

ولي چنانچه حرف بي‌صداي آخر y يا w باشد، تکرار نمي‌شود:

showing, enjoying

 

 

 

زمان گذشته ساده

 

ساختار

(last week)

(yesterday)

worked

I, we, you, he, she, ...

played

heard

 

منفي

work...

play...

hear...

didn't

did not

I, we, you, he, she, ...

 

 

 

پرسشي

work...?

play...?

hear...?

I, we, you, he, she, ...

Did

 

 

کاربرد

گذشته ساده در موارد زير کاربرد دارد:

1- براي بيان کاري که در گذشته و زمان مشخصي به پايان رسيده است:

  • We met last week.

  • He left yesterday.

 

2- براي بیان کارهايي که پشت سرهم در يک ماجرا يا داستان مي‌آيند:

  • I walked into my room and sat down. Suddenly I heard a noise coming from outside. I got up and went towards the window...

 

3- براي بيان عادت يا شرايطي در گذشته:

  • When he was a child, they lived in a cottage in the jungle.

  • Every day he walked in the jungle to....

 

نکاتي در مورد هجي (verb + ed)

1- هنگاميکه فعلي به e ختم مي‌شود، فقط d اضافه مي‌کنيم:

loved, hated, used

2- افعال يک هجايي (يک بخشي) که به ترتيب شامل يک حرف صدادار و يک حرف بي‌صدا مي‌باشند، حرف بي‌صداي آخر تکرار مي‌شود:

stopped, planned, robbed

ولي اگر دو حرف صدادار وجود داشته باشد، حرف بي‌صداي آخر تکرار نمي‌شود:

looked, cooked, seated

اگر حرف بي‌صداي آخر y يا w باشد نيز تکرار نمي‌شود:

played, rowed, showed

 

 

زمان گذشته استمراري  

ساختار

جملات پرسشي:

eating?

playing?

talking?

I,  he, she, it

was

wasn't

you, we, they

were

weren't

 

جملات مثبت و منفي:

walking

playing

fishing

was

wasn't

I,  he, she, it

were

weren't

you, we, they

 

 

کاربرد

از زمان گذشته استمراري بيشتر براي بيان کارهايي استفاده مي‌شود که در گذشته اتفاق افتاده و مدتي ادامه داشته‌اند ولي حدود زماني آنها به طور دقيق مشخص يا مهم نيست.

در اغلب موارد گذشته استمراري همراه با گذشته ساده بکار مي‌رود. در چنين حالتي، گذشته استمراري بر کارها و فعاليتهاي طولاني‌تر (در پس‌زمينه) دلالت مي‌کند، در حالي که گذشته ساده بر کارها و فعاليتهايي دلالت مي‌کند که در ميانه کارهاي طولاني‌تر واقع شده‌اند.

 

 

بطور کلي «گذشته استمراري» در موارد زير بکار مي‌رود:

1- براي بيان کاري که قبل از زمان خاصي در گذشته آغاز شده و احتمالاً پس از آن نيز ادامه داشته است:

  • 'What were you doing at 6.00?'  'I was having breakfast.'
    (.ساعت 6 چکار مي‌کرديد؟ داشتم صبحانه مي‌خوردم)

 

2- براي بیان کار يا فعاليتي در گذشته که به وسيله چيزي قطع شده باشد:

  • The phone rang when I was watching TV.
    (.وقتي داشتم تلويزيون تماشا مي‌کردم، تلفن زنگ زد)

  • While I was driving home, my car broke down.
    (.هنگاميکه داشتم به خانه بر مي‌گشتم، ماشينم خراب شد)

 

3- براي بيان کار يا فعاليتي به پايان نرسيده در زمان گذشته (در مقايسه با گذشته ساده که کارهاي کامل شده را بيان مي‌کند):

  • I was reading a book during the flight. (I didn't finish it)

  • but: I read a book during the flight. (I finished it)

 

+ نوشته شده توسط داوود محمدی در یکشنبه بیست و چهارم مهر 1390 و ساعت 19:16 |